The Internet of Things or IoT is the concept of a network of physical objects that interact with other devices and the external environment, and not with a person. One of the first ideologists of the Internet of Things was John Romki, who connected his toaster to the World Wide Web in 1990, but the full implementation of IoT began only in 2008, when more than 6 billion Internet access devices were registered in the world.
For an ordinary person, all these phrases about countless gadgets connected to the web are not particularly clear, so we will analyze the main options for the practical application of the Internet of things …
With the development of IoT, more and more household smart devices will appear – from the new generation of smart speakers to remotely controlled irons, motion sensors and air purifiers. For example, such devices will be able to close the front door from a smartphone, a vacuum cleaner will inform you of a gold earring inside, slippers will automatically light up in a room with the lights off and turn on heating when the temperature in the apartment decreases, the window will open when the drone returns home coffee and prepare it for your usual wake-up time on a certain day of the week, and when it is you (and not someone else from your family) who enters the kitchen, she will read the latest news.
This will happen in the near future, unfortunately, now in the consumer electronics market there is no single standardized “smart” home system in which devices could connect to the Internet in order to interact with each other and with customers from other buildings.
For IoT-technologies used in production, a specific definition of -IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) is reserved. This concept refers to a system of interconnected computer networks and interconnected physical objects with sensors and software for collecting and exchanging data automatically without human intervention or with minimal remote control by qualified specialists. These data will allow to optimize the production process, reducing the cost of equipment maintenance and human staff. Thanks to IIoT, the client will be able to personally configure the order in the online store and after payment, the selected product with the required characteristics will automatically begin to be produced without human intervention.
Industrial Internet of Things will literally turn the well-established “supplier-consumer” interaction pattern that we are used to. Industrial sensors will monitor both the manufacturing process of each product unit and, if necessary, track the lot location, which can be useful, for example, in the mobile industry, where the cost of a container with expensive equipment can exceed tens of millions of dollars. Giants of the IT market like Microsoft already offer their solutions for implementing IIoT.
The Internet of Things will be one of the factors for improving the health care system worldwide. Today, various fitness trackers and smart watches help monitor the state of health. Their visibility is limited by pressure, pulse and temperature – but when we are surrounded by hundreds of IoT sensors that collect and compare information about billions of people in their homes, cars, at work and just on the streets – it will be much easier for humanity to detect and prevent the occurrence of serious diseases in time, and the doctor’s and patient’s communication will take place in the format of online consultations, since in most cases personal th examination will not be required in view of the large volume of the collected telemetry.
Another scenario of the use of the Internet of Things in modern medicine is the dissemination (including at the legislative level) of subcutaneous chips. No, it’s not about the project Neuralink from Ilona Mask. In fact, subcutaneous chips are much simpler technology, although its name looks quite futuristic. In recent years, you have increasingly been able to hear about so-called biohackers – these are the pioneers in integrating mechanical elements into their bodies, which serve not to restore any lost body functions, but to acquire new opportunities. Among the latter may be contactless payment of public transport, opening locks, etc. It is noteworthy that biohacking is gaining momentum almost faster than in other countries, this contributes to narrow-profile sites like Dangerous Things, where you can freely buy the chip you are interested in, which you can “install” into yourself in almost any hospital.
The concept of a network of many sensors located all over the place is perfectly suited for building security systems capable of tracking any threat. In the near future, most homes, apartments and office buildings will be equipped with dozens of sensors that will protect the property from the attacks of even the most advanced intruders. Today, for relatively little money, you can purchase kits from remotely controlled cameras and sound / lighting / temperature sensors that connect to the Network but are not able to communicate with each other.
Utilities have high hopes for the Internet of Things, especially for large “million-plus cities”, to which, by 2050, 60-70% of the world’s population will move. If previously, data on the consumption of housing and utilities resources (water, electricity, gas) were manually collected, then with the connection of all urban infrastructure to the Internet, this problem will be left behind: the meters will send information to municipal services themselves. In addition, IoT will make “wise up” and such seemingly familiar objects:
- Parking sensors: In modern metropolitan areas, at least a third of traffic jams arises due to the lack of free parking spaces – drivers often move slowly looking for where to leave the car, delaying the rest of the flow. The widespread distribution of smart parking spaces, built into the pavement or the nearest lampposts, will save a lot of time and money for both residents of megalopolises and the city administration.
- Information stands: In Western countries, you can often find touch panels with which you can learn important information about the city, events held, look at the map, find contacts of local government institutions, etc. The Internet of Things will make interaction with these panels even more useful and interactive – for example, based on your route, monitored by smart sensors, you will receive the most personalized information with recommendations of institutions that you might like.
- Trash cans: Despite the fact that these objects are easiest to upgrade, the effect of connecting to the global network will be most noticeable – by equipping a non-trivial trash can with a filling sensor, city services will be warned in time about the need to clean the bins; At the same time, it will not be necessary to spend extra time on traveling to places where there is not enough garbage yet.
Of course, all the above scenarios are already being implemented worldwide to some extent, even Moscow entered the TOP 7 of the smartest cities in 2017. According to analysts, by the end of this year the number of devices connected to the World Wide Web will exceed 30 billion it is worth noting that in many developed countries the introduction of the Internet of Things in urban infrastructure and industrial enterprises is financed by both business and the state. The most active in the development of IoT are the governments of the European Union, South Korea, India and China.
But not everything is so smooth: the main delay in creating the Internet of Things is the lack of 5G. As operators begin to build fifth-generation mobile networks that will be able to serve millions of customers on each cell tower, electronics manufacturers will launch smart sensors, which in turn will be a great challenge for current intercontinental cables and satellite Internet sites, as IoT will increase the volume of traffic generated worldwide from 3.9 zettabyte (1 1 Зб = 1 trillion TB) in 2015 to 14.1 Зб in 2020.
The second obstacle to the automation of our life is the need to develop appropriate legislation that clearly prescribes where and how information collected by ubiquitous sensors, cameras and scanners will be stored, and many people probably don’t want to choose between personal privacy and a significant simplification of that very life.